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The Capital Of Azerbaijan
Baku is the main city of Azerbaijan and the biggest city of Caucasus. Baku is located on the seashore of the Caspina Sea. There are three main divisions in Baku: The ancient city ( Icheri Sheher), Oil millionaires’ built city and the newest part of the city. It lies on the western shore of the Caspian Sea and the southern side of the Absheron Peninsula, , curving sweep of the Bay of Baku. The bay, sheltered by the islands of the Baku Archipelago, provides the best harbour of the Caspian. The name Baku is possibly a contraction of the Persian badi kube (“blown upon by mountain winds”). Baku derives its importance from its oil industry and its administrative functions. The first historical reference to Baku dates from 885 CE, although archaeological evidence indicates a settlement there several centuries B.C. By the 11th century , Baku was in the possession of the Shirvanshah , who made it their capital in the 12th century. In 1920 Baku became capital of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.
The Maiden Tower
The Maiden Tower is located in the southeastern part of the walled city of Baku. This monument is in the form of a giant cylinder which is 28 meters in height. The thickness of the tower walls is 5 meters at the base and 4 meters on the top floor. The tower has 8 arches which divide it into 8 floors. The extraordinary shape of the monument evidences its antiquity. Some researchers suggest that the monument was a place for fire-worship and they attribute it to the VIIIth -VIIth century BC. It is certain that the monument played a significant role in the fortification of Icherisheher and it was incorporated into the common defense complex of the Shirvanshahs.
The medieval Shirvanshahs’ Palace Complex is located on one of the hills in Icherisheher. The foundation of the Palace was laid in the XIIth century and the construction was completed in the XVth century. The Palace consists of three internal courtyards at different levels. The mausoleum was built by order of Shirvanshah Khalilullah for his son and mother. The three courtyards together form the complete complex surrounded by the fortress walls. The “Bayil Stones” are also kept in the Shirvanshahs’ Palace Complex. These stone slabs are covered with inscriptions and images and are the remains of the Bayil Castle which was a defense fortress of the Shirvanshahs. The slabs were discovered as a result of archeological excavations done around the fortress building.
Museum of Archeology and Etnography
Here you can see significant archeological monuments attributed to various periods including the time before Christ and the Middle Ages. In addition, you can also become familiar with various cultures, expositions and artifacts which are displayed here.
Heydar Aliyev Center
Heydar Aliyev Center is a research and international dialogue center built on Heydar Aliyev Avenue in Baku, the capital of Azerbaijan. The center is composed of a large complex, combining a large congress hall, Heydar Aliyev Museum, exhibition halls, administrative offices. The center is named in honor of the third Azerbaijani President Heydar Aliyev. The project of the center was developed by famous architect Zaha Hadid in 2007. The center is considered one of the symbols of modern Baku.
The Azerbaijan Carpet Museum - a collection of the most exemplary works of contemporary artists and folk artists, combined with the examples of indispensable carpet and folk applied art of the national culture and art of the Azerbaijani people. The Azerbaijan Carpet Museum, which forms the material and spiritual heritage of the Azerbaijani people, is the largest carpet collection, the largest and the most prestigious carpet art museum in terms of the value and importance of rare carpets in the world.
Baku Boulevard (known as the National Park) is a parallel passage parallel to the coast of Baku in 1909. The history is more than 100 years old, the baroque sea was built on the shores of the Caspian Sea and the seafront was artificially built in inches.The park stretches along a south-facing bay on the Caspian Sea. It traditionally starts at Freedom Square continuing west to the Old City and beyond. Since 2012, the Yeni Bulvar (new boulevard) has virtually doubled the length to 3.75 km, extending the promenades to National Flag Square.In 2015 White City Boulevard added a further 2 km to the east of Freedom Square and reports have suggested that eventually the boulevard might be as long as 26 km, including Bibiheybat.
Highland park is located in the center of the city and connects it to the center with funiculus. From the dive park to the city and the bay of Baku opens a marvelous panorama. The park is one of the best parks in the country and is characterized by its distinctive relief by its architect L.Ilin. Combining the alleys with stairs and pandus and favorable placement of picturesque grounds make the Baku Gulf a glamorous landscape.
Fountain Square is one of the first central squares in Baku. The fountain complex decorates the center of the square.
As a result of the restoration of the 1950s, the garden was transformed into a greenery. In 1984 the composition of the garden greenery was changed. Fountains have become an inseparable part of the garden, and this is why it is called the Fountain Square. In 2010 the Fountain Square was renovated and completely changed.
The Bibiheybat Mosque
Bibiheybat Mosque is located 4-5 km from Baku, where the people are sheltering and visiting sacred sites along the coast of the Caspian Sea. Here are the grave of Imam Hussein Mousa-Kazim, daughter of Imam Hussein, two sons of Imam and grandson. This historic religious-architectural monument was built in the XIII century by Shirvanshah II Farrukhzad ibn Akhsitan. The inscription on the wall of the mosque is based on historical facts. It is noted in this book that the architect of the mosque built in 1281-1282 is Mahmoud ibn Sa'id. Famous historians Bakhikhanov, Beryozin, Dorn and Khanukov also wrote about this book In 1934, this sanctuary was exploded with dynamite. The mosque and minaret were erased and the road was blocked. But after independence Bibiheybat Mosque was restored. Restoration of the mosque began in 1998. Bibiheybat mosque was reconstructed on July 12, 2008. The magnificent Bibiheybat sanctuary, built in the classic oriental style, was built entirely of white marble.
The holy verses are engraved on marble walls with beautiful calligraphy patterns. The height of the mosque is 5 meters and 3000 people can pray at the same time. The tomb of these children is beside the tomb of Hadrat Hikmati. According to some narrations, the son of Imam Musa-i Kazim, was poisoned by the Caliph Ma'mun, son of Harun al-Rashid, the caliph of Baghdad. After this incident, the sons of Imam are not allowed to the holy city of Medina, Imam's three grandchildren were sent to Hadrat Musharraf's mother in Anzali, Iran. Here Baba arrives at Baku port through a person named Sucadd. Dad considers Baku a safe place for them and assigns a lady named Haji Bedir Heybat. Haji Bedir serves as a loyal human being and serves his wife for all his life. After the death of Khanim Hakima , she became famous as a sacred place.